Outdoor clinical testing with reference sunscreens to determine differences in skin response between populations of different ethnicity: A combined data analysis from 128 subjects
In describing the effectiveness of a sunscreen, it has been noted that the sun sensitivity of the target population should be taken into consideration. Populations that do not belong to the ‘White European’ ethnicity are likely to be underrepresented in trials of sunscreens, and their needs may differ, though they still require effective protection. Using data from two previous outdoor studies of sunscreen testing, which incorporated exposure to natural sunlight as well as erythema and pigmentation measurements, we compared skin responses between two population groups: those of Chinese ethnicity and those of White European ethnicity. We found differences between these two ethnic groups, even if their baseline skin colour was the same. Of particular note were severity of erythema and differences in incidence of photoprotection failure at multiple SPF levels.
Evaluation of a Sunscreen Product Compared with Reference Standards P3, P5 and P8 in Outdoor Conditions: a Randomized, Double-Blinded, Intra- individual Study in Healthy Subjects
The shortcomings of standard- ized sunscreen testing have been discussed in recent years, noting differences between how sunscreens perform in indoor clinical (in vivo) laboratory testing compared with real-life con- ditions. We previously developed an outdoor clinical method for ranking sunscreens by per- formance level. We used this method to test the performance of a new broad-spectrum sun- screen against International Organization for Standardization (ISO) reference products P3, P5 and P8.
Clinical Evaluation of Indian Sandalwood Oil and Its Protective Effect on the Skin against the Detrimental Effect of Exposome
The skin is constantly subject to external stressors (the exposome), including particulate matter and blue light. These can penetrate the deeper layers of the skin, inducing the release of free radicals and triggering an inflammatory cascade of events contributing to cutaneous aging and exacerbating inflammatory skin conditions. This study demonstrates the clinical efficacy of Indian sandalwood oil of varying concentrations against oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light. Twenty-two healthy human subjects entered and completed the study of 11 days. Test products containing 0.1%, 1% and 10% of sandalwood oil, as well as a placebo and a comparator control (α-tocopherol), were applied on the different investigational zones of the upper back of each subject. Exposure ensued on day 7, using a controlled pollution exposure system (CPES) and blue light at a wavelength of 412 nm. Sebum was sampled on each investigational zone following the last exposure. The level of squalene mono-hydroperoxide (SQOOH) was the primary endpoint. A dose-dependent decrease in SQOOH on the zones treated with 10%, 1% and 0.1% of the sandalwood oil formulation compared to the untreated zones was observed. The zone treated with the 10% sandalwood-containing formula demonstrated the highest protective efficacy with the lowest amount of SQOOH. Increasing the concentration of the sandalwood oil increased its protective antioxidant activity. The results collected from this intraindividual comparative is the first clinical trial to suggest that sandalwood oil at a concentration between 1% and 10% protects the skin against the oxidative stress induced by urban dust and blue light exposure.
The protective effect of a novel sunscreen against blue light
Premature skin ageing, and skin hyperpigmentation are influenced by exogenous factors, such as ultraviolet radiation and blue light. In this study, we assess the protective effect of a sunscreen (TDF® Blu Voile Sunscreen) in protecting the skin against the harmful effects of blue light irradiation in vivo and through the in situ quantitative and qualitative evaluation of protein carbonylation in human skin explants.
Outdoor sunscreen testing with high-intensity solar exposure in a Chinese and Caucasian population.
The ability of a sunscreen to prevent ultraviolet (UV)-induced erythema and pigmentation is assessed following the international validated indoor in vivo methods of sun protection factor (SPF) testing1 (a measure of UVB protection) and UVA protection factor (UVAPF).2 Of these, the SPF value is probably the most widely recognized and widely used measure of protection level. However, the testing methods use solar UV simulators that differ from real sunlight both in irradiance—the irradiance is higher than that of sunlight to avoid the need for prolonged exposure—and spectrum.
Antioxidant and Anti-Aging Potential of Indian Sandalwood Oil against Environmental Stressors In Vitro and Ex Vivo.
Distilled from the heartwood of Santalum album, Indian sandalwood oil is an essential oil that historically has been used as a natural active ingredient in cosmetics to condition and brighten the skin. It has been documented to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. Here, we investigated the protective and anti-aging effects of Indian sandalwood oil in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells and in human skin explants after exposure to oxidative stress.
Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerance of a cosmetic mask containing 89% of vichy volcanic mineralizing water and hyaluronic acid after facial laser procedures.
The number of dermatological or cosmetic procedures has continuously increased over the last decades. The main population requesting dermatological procedures are women over the age of 40 (92%). Dermatological procedures, including ablative and nonablative fractional lasers, microneedling, radiofrequency, microfocused ultrasound, and intense pulsed light, are mainly performed on the face and may result in transient local side effects, such as erythema, blistering, crusts, scaling, hypo- or hyperpigmentation, or hemorrhagic lesions. They may even alter the natural skin barrier.
Pigmentation effects of blue light irradiation on skin and how to protect against them
Solar radiation, in particular ultraviolet radiation (UVR), is still considered to be the main cause of skin ageing, a phenomenon known as photoageing [1, 2]. However, for a couple of years now, visible light, with a wavelength of 400–700 nm and accounting for around 50% of all solar radiation, has come into focus as an additional contributor to photoageing. More specifically, high energy visible (HEV) light, commonly referred to as blue light – with a wavelength of 400–500 nm adjacent to UVA light – has been shown to induce signs of cutaneous photoageing in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo
A novel method for evaluating the effect of pollution on the human skin under controlled conditions.
Generally considered as a major risk factor for various respiratory diseases, air pollution can also have a significant impact on the skin. To date, there is a plethora of cosmetics products with “anti-pollution” claims. However, these claims have not been fully substantiated with robust scientific evidence and currently there is no standardized method in place for validating the anti-pollution efficacy of cosmetics products.
New Methodology to Evaluate Sunscreens Under Outdoor Conditions: A Double-Blind, Randomized Intra-Individual Clinical Study of a Water-Based Broad-Spectrum SPF50+ Versus SPF15 (P3) and SPF50+
This study explored a new method to test sunscreens in outdoor conditions (very high to extreme ultraviolet [UV] radiation) approximating real-life solar exposure while maintaining scientific standards and acceptable conditions, and assessed the efficacy of a water-based sun-protection factor (SPF) 50+ versus a reference SPF15 and two comparator SPF50+ products.
A randomized study to evaluate the efficacy and effectiveness of two sunscreen formulations on Indian skin types IV and V with pigmentation irregularities.
India is geographically located in Asia; however, describing Indian skin as Asian skin or skin of color may not be accurate. Indian skin color is diverse with Fitzpatrick phototypes varying from III in North India to VI in South India, with the majority of population having phototypes IV (28° < individual typological angle <10°) and V (10° < individual typological angle < −30°). The latitude and environmental conditions have a great impact on the Indian skin color.